The Jade Peony
Little Gems of Literature: Holiday reading for Grade 8,9,10 & 11 with bunpeiris in April, August & December at Kandana email@example.com 0777 1000 60
The Jade Peony
by Wayson Choy
When Grandmama died at 83 our whole household held its breath. She had promised us a sign her leaving, final proof that her present life had ended well. My parents knew that without any clear sign, our own family fortunes could be altered, threatened. My stepmother looked endlessly into the small cluttered room the ancient lady had occupied. Nothing was touched; nothing changed. My father, thinking that a sign should appear in Grandmama’s garden, looked at the frost-killed shoots and cringed: no, that could not be it.
My two older teenage brothers and my sister, Liang, age 14, were embarrassed by my parents’ behavior. What would all the white people in Vancouver think of us? We were Canadians now, Chinese-Canadians, a hyphenated reality that my parents could never accept. So it seemed, for different reasons, we all held our breath waiting forsomething.
I was eight when she died. For days she had resisted going into the hospital . . . a cold, just a cold . . . and instead gave constant instruction to my stepmother and sister on the boiling of ginseng roots mixed with bitter extract. At night, between wracking coughs and deadly silences, Grandmama had her back and chest rubbed with heated camphor oil and sipped a bluish decoction of an herb called Peacock’s Tail. When all these failed to abate her fever, she began to arrange the details of her will. This she did with my father, confessing finally: “I am too stubborn. The only cure for old age is to die.”
My father wept to hear this. I stood beside her bed; she turned to me. Her round face looked darker, and the gentleness of her eyes, the thin, arching eyebrows, seemed weary. I brushed the few strands of gray, brittle hair from her face; she managed to smile at me. Being the youngest, I had spent nearly all my time with her and could not imagine that we would ever be parted. Yet when she spoke, and her voice hesitated, cracked, the sombre shadows of her room chilled me. Her wrinkled brow grew wet with fever, and her small body seemed even more diminutive.
“I – I am going to the hospital, Grandson.” Her hand reached out for mine. “You know, Little Son, whatever happens I will never leave you.” Her palm felt plush and warm, the slender, old fingers boney and firm, so magically strong was her grip that I could not imagine how she could ever part from me. Ever.
Her hands were magical. My most vivid memories are of her hands: long, elegant fingers, with impeccable nails, a skein of fine, barely-seen veins, and wrinkled skin like light pine. Those hands were quick when she taught me, at six, simple tricks of juggling, learnt when she was a village girl in Southern Canton; a troup of actors had stayed on her father’s farm. One of them, “tall and pale as the whiteness of petals,” fell in love with her, promising to return. In her last years his image came back like a third being in our two lives. He had been magician, acrobat, juggler, and some of the things he taught her she had absorbed and passed on to me through her stories and games. But above all, without realizing it then, her hands conveyed to me the quality of their love.
Most marvellous for me was the quick-witted skill her hands revealed in making windchimes for our birthdays: windchimes in the likeness of her lost friend’s only present to her, made of bits of string and scraps, in the centre of which once hung a precious jade peony. This wondrous gift to her broke apart years ago, in China, but Grandmama kept the jade pendant in a tiny red silk envelope, and kept it always in her pocket, until her death.
These were not ordinary, carelessly made chimes, such as those you now find in our Chinatown stores, whose rattling noises drive you mad. But making her special ones caused dissension in our family, and some shame. Each one that she made was created from a treasure trove of glass fragments and castaway costume jewellery, in the same way that her first windchime had been made. The problem for the rest of the family was in the fact that Grandmama looked for these treasures wandering the back alleys of Keefer and Pender Streets, peering into our neighbors’ garbage cans, chasing away hungry, nervous cats and shouting curses at them.
“All our friends are laughing at us!” Older Brother Jung said at last to my father, when Grandmama was away having tea at Mrs. Lim’s.
“We are not poor,” Oldest Brother Kiam declared, “yet she and Sek-Lung poke through those awful things as if -” he shoved me in frustration and I stumbled against my sister, “- they were beggars!”
“She will make Little Brother crazy!” Sister Liang said. Without warning, she punched me sharply in the back; I jumped. “You see, look how nervous he is!”
I lifted my foot slightly, enough to swing it back and kick Liang in the shin. She yelled and pulled back her fist to punch me again. Jung made a menacing move towards me.
“Stop this, all of you!” My father shook his head in exasperation. How could he dare tell the Grand Old One, his aging mother, that what was somehow appropriate in a poor village in China, was an abomination here. How could he prevent me, his youngest, from accompanying her? If she went walking into those alleyways alone she could well be attacked by hoodlums. “She is not a beggar looking for food. She is searching fo-r for ….”
My stepmother attempted to speak, then fell silent. She, too, seemed perplexed and somewhat ashamed. They all loved Grandmama, but she was inconvenient, unsettling.
As for our neighbors, most understood Grandmama to be harmlessly crazy, others that she did indeed make lovely toys but for what purpose? Why? they asked, and the stories she told me, of the juggler who smiled at her, flashed in my head.
Finally, by their cutting remarks, the family did exert enough pressure so that Grandmama and I no longer openly announced our expeditions. Instead, she took me with her on “shopping trips,” ostensibly for clothes or groceries, while in fact we spent most of our time exploring stranger and more distant neighborhoods, searching for splendid junk: jangling pieces of a vase, cranberry glass fragments embossed with leaves, discarded glass beads from Woolworth necklaces …. We would sneak them all home in brown rice sacks, folded into small parcels, and put them under her bed. During the day when the family was away at school or work, we brought them out and washed every item in a large black pot of boiling lye and water, dried them quickly, carefully, and returned them, sparkling, under her bed.
Our greatest excitement occurred when a fire gutted the large Chinese Presbyterian Church, three blocks from our house. Over the still-smoking ruins the next day, Grandmama and I rushed precariously over the blackened beams to pick out the stained glass that glittered in the sunlight. Small figure bent over, wrapped against the autumn cold in a dark blue quilted coat, happily gathering each piece like gold, she became my spiritual playmate:“There’s a good one! There!”
Hours later, soot-covered and smelling of smoke, we came home with a Safeway carton full of delicate fragments, still early enough to steal them all into the house and put the small box under her bed. “These are special pieces,” she said, giving the box a last push, “because they come from a sacred place.” She slowly got up and I saw, for the first time, her hand begin to shake. But then, in her joy, she embraced me. Both of our hearts were racing, as if we were two dreamers. I buried my face in her blue quilt, and for a moment, the whole world seemed silent.
“My juggler,” she said, “he never came back to me from Honan . . . perhaps the famine . . . .” Her voice began to quake. “But I shall have my sacred windchime . . . I shall have it again.”
One evening, when the family was gathered in their usual places in the parlor, Grandmama gave me her secret nod: a slight wink of her eye and a flaring of her nostrils. There was trouble in the air. Supper had gone badly, school examinations were due, father had failed to meet an editorial deadline at the Vancouver Chinese Times. A huge sigh came from Sister Liang.
“But it is useless this Chinese they teach you!” she lamented, turning to Stepmother for support. Silence. Liang frowned, dejected, and went back to her Chinese book, bending the covers back.
“Father,” Oldest Brother Kiam began, waving his bamboo brush in the air, “you must realize that this Mandarin only confuses us. W e are Cantonese speakers . . ”
“And you do not complain about Latin, French or German in your English school?” Father rattled his newspaper, a signal that his patience was ending.
“But, Father, those languages are scientific,” Kiam jabbed his brush in the air. “We are now in a scientific, logical world.”
Father was silent. We could all hear Grandmama’s rocker.
“What about Sek-Lung?” Older Brother Jung pointed angrily at me. “He was sick last year, but this year he should have at least started Chinese school, instead of picking over garbage cans!”
“He starts next year,” Father said, in a hard tone that immediately warned everyone to be silent. Liang slammed her book.
Grandmama went on rocking quietly in her chair. She complimented my mother on her knitting, made a remark about the “strong beauty” of Kiam’s brushstrokes which, in spite of himself, immensely pleased him. All this babbling noise was her family torn and confused in a strange land: everything here was so very foreign and scientific.
The truth was, I was sorry not to have started school the year before. In my innocence I had imagined going to school meant certain privileges worthy of all my brothers’ and sister’s complaints. The fact that my lung infection in my fifth and sixth years, mistakenly diagnosed as TB, earned me some reprieve, only made me long for school the more. Each member of the family took turns on Sunday, teaching me or annoying me. But it was the countless hours I spent with Grandmama that were my real education. Tapping me on my head she would say, “Come, Sek-Lung, we have our work,” and we would walk up the stairs to her small crowded room. There, in the midst of her antique shawls, the old ancestral calligraphy and multi-colored embroidered hangings, beneath the mysterious shelves of sweet herbs and bitter potions, we would continue doing what we had started that morning: the elaborate windchime for her death.
“I can’t last forever,” she declared, when she let me in on the secret of this one. “It will sing and dance and glitter,” her long fingers stretched into the air, pantomiming the waving motion of her ghost chimes; “My spirit will hear its sounds and see its light and return to this house and say goodbye to you.”
Deftly she reached into the Safeway carton she had placed on the chair beside me. She picked out a fish-shape amber piece, and with a long needle-like tool and a steel ruler, she scored it. Pressing the blade of a cleaver against the line, with the fingers of her other hand, she lifted me up the glass until it leanly snapped into the exact shape she required. Her hand began to tremble, the tips of her fingers to shiver, like rippling water.
“You see that, Little One?” She held her hand up. “That is my body fighting with Death. He is in this room now.”
My eyes darted in panic, but Grandmama remained calm, undisturbed, and went on with her work. Then I remembered the glue and uncorked the jar for her. Soon the graceful ritual movements of her hand returned to her, and I became lost in the magic of her task: she dabbed a cabalistic mixture of glue on one end and skillfully dropped the braided end of a silk thread into it. This part always amazed me: the braiding would slowly, very slowly, unknot, fanning out like a prized fishtail. In a few seconds the clear, homemade glue began to harden as I blew lightly over it, welding to itself each separate silk strand.
Each jam-sized pot of glue was precious; each large cork had been wrapped with a fragment of pink silk. I remember this part vividly, because each cork was treated to a special rite. First we went shopping in the best silk stores in Chinatown for the perfect square of silk she required. It had to be a deep pink, a shade of color blushing toward red. And the tone had to match – as closely as possible – her precious jade carving, the small peony of white and light-red jade, her most lucky possession. In the centre of this semi-translucent carving, no more than an inch wide, was a pool of pink light, its veins swirling out into the petals of the flower.
“This color is the color of my spirit,” she said, holding it up to the window so I could see the delicate pastel against the broad strokes of sunlight. She dropped her voice, and I held my breath at the wonder of the color. “This was given to me by the young actor who taught me how to juggle. He had four of them, and each one had a centre of this rare color, the color of Good Fortune.” The pendant seemed to pulse as she turned it: “Oh, Sek-Lung! He had white hair and white skin to his toes! It’s true, I saw him bathing.”She laughed and blushed, her eyes softened at the memory. The silk had to match the pink heart of her pendant: the color was magical for her, to hold the unravelling strands of her memory.. . .
It was just six months before she died that we really began to work on her last windchime. Three thin bamboo sticks were steamed and bent into circlets; 30 exact lengths of silk thread, the strongest kind, were cut and braided at both ends and glued to stained glass. Her hands worked on their own command, each hand racing with a life of its own: cutting, snapping, braiding, knotting.. . . Sometimes she breathed heavily and her small body, growing thinner, sagged against me. Death, I thought, He is in this room, and I would work harder alongside her. For months Grandmama and I did this every other evening, a half dozen pieces each time. The shaking in her hand grew worse, but we said nothing. Finally, after discarding hundreds, she told me she had the necessary 30 pieces. But this time, because it was a sacred chime, I would not be permitted to help her ie it up or have the joy of raising it. “Once tied,” she said, holding me against my disappointment, “not even I can raise it. Not a sound must it make until I have died.”
“What will happen?” “Your father will then take the centre braided strand and raise it. He will hang it against my bedroom window sothat my ghost may see it, and hear it, and return. I must say goodbye to this world properly or wander in this foreign devil’s land forever.”
“You can take the streetcar!” I blurted, suddenly shocked that she actually meant to leave me. I thought I could hear the clear-chromatic chimes, see the shimmering colors on the wall: I fell against her and cried, and there in my crying I knew that she would die. I can still remember the touch of her hand on my head, and the smell of her thick woolen sweater pressed against my face. “I will always be with you, Little Sek-Lung, but in a different way . . . you’ll see.”
Months went by, and nothing happened. Then one late September evening, when I had just come home from Chinese School, Grandmama was preparing supper when she looked out our kitchen window and saw a cat – a long, lean white cat – jump into our garbage pail and knock it over. She ran out to chase it away, shouting curses at it. She did not have her thick sweater on and when she came back into the house, a chill gripped her. She leaned against the door: “That was not a cat,” she said, and the odd tone of her voice caused my father to look with alarm at her. “I can not take back my curses. It is too late.” She took hold of my father’s arm: “It was all white and had pink eyes like sacred fire.”
My father started at this, and they both looked pale. My brothers and sister, clearing the table, froze in their gestures.
“The fog has confused you,” Stepmother said. “It was just a cat.” But Grandmama shook her head, for she knew it was a sign. “I will not live forever,” she said. “I am prepared.”
The next morning she was confined to her bed with a severe cold. Sitting by her, playing with some of my toys, I asked her about the cat: “Why did father jump at the cat with the pink eyes? He didn’t see it, you did.”
“But he and your mother know what it means.”
“My friend, the juggler, the magician, was as pale as white jade and he had pink eyes.” I thought she would begin to tell me one of her stories, a tale of enchantment or of a wondrous adventure, but she only paused to swallow; her eyes glittered, lost in memory. She took my hand, gently opening and closing her fingers over it. “Sek-Lung,” she sighed, “he has come back to me.”
Then Grandmama sank back into her pillow and the embroidered flowers lifted to frame her wrinkled face. I saw her hand over my own, and my own began to tremble. I fell fitfully asleep by her side. When I woke up it was dark and her bed was empty. She had been taken to the hospital and I was not permitted to visit.
A few days after that she died of the complications of pneumonia. Immediately after her death my father came home and said nothing to us, but walked up the stairs to her room, pulled aside the drawn lace curtains of her window and lifted the windchimes to the sky.
I began to cry and quickly put my hand in my pocket for a handkerchief. Instead, caught between my fingers, was the small, round firmness of the jade peony. In my mind’s eye I saw Grandmama smile and heard, softly, the pink centre beat like a beautiful, cramped heart.
The Jade Peony is reprinted herin by the kind courtesy of the author — All Rights Reserved/copyright Wayson Choy.
Respond: What do you think of the relationship between Sek-Lung & his grandmother? Explain
 Who gave the grandmother her first windchime?
 Infer: Whydo you think the making of windchimes was such a meaningful activity in the grandmother’s later years?
 Compare & Contrast: How do Sek-Lung’s reactions to his grandmother’s activities differ from those of the other family members?
 Analyze: How do you explain these differing attitudes?
 Infer: How is the making of the grandmother’s last windchime different for her and for her family?
Is conflict necessary?
[a] In this story, what conflicts does Sek-Lung face?
[b] Does Sek-Lung grow from these challenges? Explain your answer.
Short story Review
Consider the setting, plot, and chaaracters in” The Jade Peony.” Which do you think is the most important element in this wshort story?
Support your answer with details from the story.
What is the undelying theme, or message, of this story?
Complete a chart like the one shown to examine details in the story. List events, actions, or descriptions that seem important. Then complete the rest of the chart.
Discuss your ideas with a partner.
|What is Says||What it Means||Why it is Important|
In spite of the tremendous contribution by the Chinese [mainly from Guangdong Province of China, engaged for low pay & long hours] in the construction of Canadian Pacific Railway in the 19th century, the government of Canada passed The Chinese Immigration Act, 1885 levying a ‘Head Tax” of CAD 50 on each Chinese arriving in Canada; since then, it had been then increased intermittently till it rose to a whopping CAD 500 in 1903. Some of the Chinese Canadian railway workers settled in Canada after the railway was constructed. Most could not bring the rest of their families, including immediate relatives, due to government restrictions & enormous processing fees. They established Chinatown & societies in undesirable sections of the cities.
Some educated Chinese arrived in Canada during the Second World War as refugees. Since the mid-20th century, most new Chinese Canadians come from university-educated families, who of still consider quality education an essential value. These newcomers are a major ‘brain gain”, the inverse of the infamous “brain drain”, i.e. the occurrence of many Canadians leaving to the United States, of which Chinese have also been a part. In the 21st century, Chinese immigration from Hong Kong dropped sharply and, today the largest source of Chinese immigration is mainland China.
Even though Chinese Canadians were granted voting rights in federal elections of Canada in 1947, it was only following more than a half century of consistent discrimination, on June 22, 2006, Prime Minister Stephan Harper extended an apology in Cantonese and compensation for the head tax once paid by the Chinese immigrants. Survivors or their spouses were then paid CAD 20,000 in compensation.
Today Canadians of Chinese descent, including mixed Chinese and other ethnic origins, make up about 4% of the Canadian population, or about 1.3 million people as of 2006.
Wayson Choy (born 20 Apr 1939) was raised in Vancouver’s Chinatown by both his adoptive parents and his extended community. Wayson Choy was an only child whose father, a cook for the Canadian Pacific Ocean Steamship Line, was often away at sea. Wayson Choy attended the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the late 1950s to study creative writing under the tutelage of Earle Birney. He began teaching English at Toronto’s Humber College in 1967, where he was also a faculty member of the Humber School of Writers.
Choy is the author of the novel The Jade Peony (1995) which won the Trillium Book Award and the City of Vancouver Book Award. In 2010, it was selected as one of five books for the CBC’s annual Canada Reads competition.
His memoir Paper Shadows: A Chinatown Childhood (1999) won the Edna Staebler Award for Creative Non-Fiction and was nominated for a Governor General’s Award.
Choy’s latest novel, All That Matters, was published in 2004 and was nominated for the Scotiabank Giller Prize. In 2005, he was named a member of the Order of Canada
The Jade Peony
The Jade Peony, Wayson Choy describes Vancouver’s Chinese community during the 1930’s and 1940’s through the eyes of three siblings. Jook-Liang, Only Sister, struggles to find her identity through her friendship with the elderly Monkey-Man. Jung-Sum, Second Brother, is adopted and finds a role model in the worldly Frank Yuen. And finally, Sek-Lung, Third Brother, struggles with his health while grieving for his beloved grandmother Poh-Poh. The children in this novel live in a world full of racism, poverty and superstition
Wayson Choy Introduces “The Jade Peony”
During World War 11, while my immigrant parents worked all hours, I was cared for by Chinatown‘s village elders in Vancour, Canada. These elders told me such vivid myths involving ghosts, magic amulats, hissing dragons, and talking foxes, that I dreamed one day that I would tell my own tales.
As a student, when I was assigned to write a story based on the color “pink” -I was stuck. My aunt recalled that rare jades were pink in tone, and that afternoon, another aunt mentined how the peonies were flowering in her garden.
Suddenly, something magical happened: the two ideas came together. My imagination glimpsed a wrinkled hand passing a carved pink jade into a boy’s small palm. After imagining these characters, the first words of “The Jade peony” came to me: “When Grandma died at 83…”
Themes: Questions that Haunt You
After some research and a dozen revisions, I realised that I had been focusing on life and dying, and the realities of love between generations. years later, I undestood therewere themes, meanings and questions-hauntings-that had attached themselves to my story. For example, how many kinds of love were there? Were spirits real? And was dying the end of everything? One theme came to possess me: Love has no rules. Therefore, I now write beliving that I, and my readers, will continue to discover similar meanings.
Symbol: What does the Jade Peony mean?
But I wondered why I came up with jade peony-what, as a symbol, did the amulet stand for? I realized it has many layers of meaning, related to love & memory. I thought of the jade left to me by my mother and father, just as you might think about some important legacy left to you by a friend or a family member. I also thought of the apron my mother last wore before she was rushed to the hospital. Whenever I think of that apron, I see my dead mother alive again, a vivid ghost standing over her stove to feed us all. Finally, I as a writer created the symbol of the jade peony to make the people I love come alive again.