Learning English Literature

Why Literature

Learning English Literature

by bunpeiris

Literature being of the virtue of guiding you all to acquire and develop an inquiring mind, you are free to argue not only on any or all the points of views brought in by you guys, but also on received concepts. Literature is all about us. Literature is all about the humanity itself and nothing else.
The German philosopher Edmund Husserl termed Literature die Lebebswelt”. Translated into English language, a Germanic language heavily influenced by European languages and superimposed with Latin grammar, this term means nothing less than The Living World.”
What is an inquiring mind?
Kalamas, don’t go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by
logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering
views, by probability, or by the thought, ‘This contemplative is our teacher.’
When you know for
yourselves that, ‘These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless;
these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted &
carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness’ — then you should enter &
remain in them.”
Gautama Buddha
[c. 623 – c.543BC] 
What do we inquire?
Literature leads you to make inquiries as what it means to be human and exploration into fundamental human themes
Moby Dick

What is the significance of the subject of Literature [*1] in the educational curriculum?

Learner Keener: Literature is the one and only item or subject or part of our educational curriculum that deals directly with the actual world of lived experience, the present reality. Unlike other subjects, where we are expected to provide the right answer, Literature serves on a platter the opportunity for us to express ourselves with our own arguments. So, we thank god for that.

Master: No, no thank me. [class roars with laughter]
Precisely, Literature gives credibility to your own personal perceptions, feelings, emotions expressed in your own words on the text -prose or verse content-you are reading and learning. French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, ciritic, and semiotician Roland Barthes famously declared “Literature is the question minus the answer”
See you are free to come up with your own answers. Nihil timendum est- Fear nothing.
I set you free.
Learner Rioter: We have been already granted Free Will by Lord God, Sir.
Master: I wouldn’t even dream of withdrawing your god granted Free Will.
[class roars with laughter again]

What is literature?

Learner Reader: [a] Works of Literature bring in a moral message and thereby broadens, deepens, and sharpens awareness of life.
Master: Once again, you are on the bull’s eye. We can put it figuratively…   well, after all you do study Literature, so why don’t you make it more colourful. See, we need to practice what we learn.

[b] Literature is a window for us to peer out from our lives to learn about what went, goes on in the lives of the people world over then and now.
[c] Literature is a mirror that could well reflect on our own lives, learn something about ourselves that we haven’t known till then. On certain occasions, we may see ourselves, our very lives reflected in the characters of the works of Literature.
Books are the carriers of civilization. Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill. They are engines of change, windows on the world, lighthouses erected in the sea of time. – Barbara W. Tuchman (Think Exist)
Learner Naturer: Superior works of Literature, often have a concept below the story. Robinson Crusoe is all adventure. But then my uncle pointed out that, we can also see, therein his struggle against the nature. Its Man Versus Nature. And then again good vs. evil.
Master: Lovely. You are right on the target.
Literary texts are often rich is multiple layers of meaning, and can be effectively mined for discussions and sharing feelings or opinions. One would Robinson Crusoe merely as an adventure story. But then again it can be interpreted as a conflict between Man and the Nature. Stillmore, it can be interpreted as Man Versus his faith in God: t
he book tells the story of how Robinson becomes closer to God, not through listening to sermons in a church but through spending time alone amongst nature with only a Bible to read.

Moby-Dick written by American Herman Melville [1819 –1891], on the face of it  a whaling expedition, yet, infact is replete with many layers of meanings. Among them is the theme of obsession: Captain Ahab’s pitiful obsession in killing the great white whale, which had his leg ripped off in a previous whaling expedition, ultimately, resulted in his violent death in the sea.
Then again, making a long stride from the 19th-century ultra mad-max whaling captain lost in the Typhoons of treacherous seas of Ilha Formosa [Portuguese: “Beautiful Island”] [modern Taiwan] to the horse grazing fields of fertile Fergana Valley straddling Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and lying between two rivers, the Naryn and the Kara Darya, we bump upon the same theme of all consuming obsession in the tragedy of the chivalrous Persian and Tarter warriors Rostam and Sohrab, that forms part of the 10th-century Persian epic  Shahnameh sung by bard Ferdowsi [935–1025 CE] and translated into English by English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold [1822 –1888] imitating  the grandeur and rapidity” of Homer. Rustom’s obsession in searching his father resulted in his tragic death in the prime of his youth, at the very hands of his father. And he died in the same hands. So, now you see, what matters is how you see the work of Literature, how you interpret it.
Tell me what you see.
Numerous authors, critics and linguists, for centuries, if not millenniums, have puzzled over what literature is. One broader explanation of Literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. The works of Literature are cultural documents which offer a deeper understanding of a country or countries (Basnet & Mounfold 1993).
Then again, other linguists say that there is no inherent quality to a literary text that makes a literary text, rather it is the interpretation that the reader gives to the text (Eagleton 1983). Leo Tolstoy argued that all Literature, quality Literature revolves round two central issues: Who are we and how shall we live?
Who are we? Are we alone in this universe? No other intelligent being in any of those billions of planet? If we are alone, why? What’s the purpose of our lives?
How shall we live? Should we love our family, relations? our neighbours? Our country? If so, why?
Moby-Dick Literature

Why should we  learn literature?

You develop the insight of an artist,
the analytical precision of a scientist,
and the persuasiveness of a lawyer
Prof. Maureen Moran, Brunel University

[a] Learner Merrier: For sheer enjoyment
Master:Indeed. Enjoyment and appreciation of Literature will give you all the ability to develop an interest in books and reading. Then as you begin to move away from this syllabus of Literature and into your adult lives, you are already armed with ability to enjoy and appreciate text of other subjects. Having exposed to a range of Literature during their school days, you will have confidence to approach and tackle new forms of books and writing.
[b] Learner Britisher: We gain an opportunity learn more of English Culture.
Master: Provided they are cultured.
[Class roars in laughter]
studying English Literature does not confine you guys to the traditions strictly of England. It also serves the possibility of introducing the traditions which inform English
, such as the study of Ancient Greek Epic Poems “The Iliad” and “Odyssey.
Now, let me impress upon you one more important matter. Within the confines of our concern, Cambridge OL, the subject of studying Literature has been modified from English Literature, that is to say Literature written by the British showcasing the English lifestyle and culture to Literature in English, that is, literary work that covers all regions or countries of the world, written in English.
Now, since such is the subject, we are offered an opportunity to gain some knowledge of diverse cultures around the world. A good example is how we gather Nigerian traditions while reading the novel titled “Things Fall Apart” by Chinua Achebe.

Arabian Nights
 Photo credit: Life Ball © Markus Morianz
[d] Learner Scholar: Literature teach us how to live, as Scheherazade found it.
Storyteller: Here again, milady?
Scheherezade: These people sit for hours, just listening.
Scheherezade: It’s a miracle.
Storyteller: People need stories, more than bread, itself.
Storyteller: They teach us how to live, and why.
Scheherazade: [narrating] The storyteller always said, “Stories can save us.” I guess what he meant was… they can save us! If we use our imagination.
Master: Indeed, after all, the fiction would ideally and closely follow the reality.
 In Sir Richard Burton‘s translation of The 1001 Arabian Nights, Scheherazade was described in this way:”[Scheherazade] had perused the books, annals and legends of preceding Kings, and the stories, examples and instances of bygone men and things; indeed it was said that she had collected a thousand books of histories relating to antique races and departed rulers. She had perused the works of the poets and knew them by heart; she had studied philosophy and the sciences, arts and accomplishments; and she was pleasant and polite, wise and witty. Well How did Princess Scheherazade save her life from Sultan Schariar?
 scheherazade  Parsis Rustom and Shorub
Amyra Dastur: Parsis [*10] in Bollywood have invariably been portrayed as either Bawa or Rustom. They have often come across as the most amiable people, with a distinct appearance, and manner of communicating
[c] Learner Intuitor: To learn more about ourselves.
Master: [i]  Exactly, to learn more on Human Condition, [*4] that is, I mean, the sum total of human activities and capabilities].
Now, Don’t get confused Human Condition with Human Nature.  How we live doesn’t correspond to human nature. Well, Human Nature is what we are and why we act the way do. Don’t ask me-I have no idea, only god knows of the nature of humans.  I don’t understand the human nature and the rationale beyond it. Fools in a March of Folly
Literature is the leading light, the beacon, the north star, the compass that helps us to learn more about the Human Condition: how we follow, emulate and develop or worsen out human traits.
Students who study only English Language, with its emphasis on four skills, i. e, reading, writing, speaking and listening skills, most often fail to see the point of studying English
Literature, especially if they have no plans to study English at university. But, you see, English Literature can introduce students to a range of aspects as we discussed now.
Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become. – C.S Lewis (BBC 2012)
“Science gives us no answer to the question, how shall we live?”  Leo Tolstoy [1898– 1910]
[d] Learner Pusher: Sir, one more
Master: Yes, take the floor by all means.
[e] Learner Pusher carries on: Learning literature raises and broadens our minds to see faraway lands, cultures of a wide spectrum, diverse characters, and the past, present and future in contrasting perspectives.
Master: Brilliant.
[f] Learner Strokemaker: Sir, another one
Master: Yes
[g] Learner Strokemaker: Sir, superior works of Literature written by master writers present themes that are appreciated by many people regardless of age, gender, country or culture.
Master: Aha, there goes the master stroke. We see this phenomenon as Universal and Timeless: Literature is for all cosmos and for all times. That’s what the superior works of Literature such as Homer’s, Shakespeare’s, Conrad’s, Tolstoy’s and Hugo’s are.
Now, all of these reasons of yours are equally valid. But then, remember, most of all, learning Literature, expands the capacity of the learners, yours, to sympathize with other human beings; enhance your abilities to view, stimulate the imagination of yours, the humans in all its great complexity; raise the spiritual levels by broadening the intellectual horizons. It cannot get any better.
Well, have you heard of Noam Chomosky [born in 1928], father of modern linguistics, a major figure in analytic philosophy.
“It is quite possible-overwhelmingly probable, one might guess-that we will always learn more about human life and personality from novels than from scientific psychology”
To support Noam Chomsky, let me call no lesser personage than  Sigmund Freud himself to testify. Freud often treats a literary work as a portrayal of reality and attempts to explain the psychology of the characters portrayed. Besides his favorite German classics, Freud often refers to Shakespeare whom he began reading at the age of eight and could “recite at length in his near-perfect English” (Holland, 1960:163; Gay, 1998: 166). His famous pages on and random references to Shakespeare often prove to be eye-openers for Shakespeare specialists who are interested in the human psyche.
The enigma of Hamlet had long fascinated Freud. Now he was able to apply the concept to both plays: From understanding the tragedy of destiny [Oedipus Rex] it was only a step further to understanding a tragedy of character—Hamlet, which had been admired for three hundred years without its meaning being discovered or its author’s motives guessed. It could scarcely be a chance that this neurotic creation of the poet should have come to grief . . . over the Oedipus complex. (Letter to W. Fliess, 15 October 1897, in Freud, 1985; qtd. in 1989: 38)
Literature expands language awareness. Asking learners to examine sophisticated or non standard examples of language (which can occur in literary texts) makes them more aware of the norms of language used (Widdowson, 1975 quoted by Lazar 1993).
Now, in Norwegian curriculum [*7], one of the objectives of second language learning is defined as:
In addition to learning the English language, this subject will also contribute insight into the way we live and how others live, and their views on life, values and cultures. Learning about the English-speaking world will provide a good basis for understanding the world around us and how English developed into a world language. Literature in English, from nursery rhymes to Shakespeare‘ sonnets, may instill a lifelong joy of reading and provide a deeper understanding of oneself and others. (Udir.no «Upper Secondary Education English Curriculum», 2012)
Among the globally acclaimed British writers are: William Shakespeare, John Milton, Joseph Conrad [*3], Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Hardy, Geoffrey Chaucer, George Orwell, John Dryden, Ben Johnson, Bernard Shaw, Virginia Wolf, Oscar Wilde, John Donne, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, T.S Eliot, etc.
Literature in English is the literary work that covers all regions or countries of the world, written in English. The Literature in this category are: Canadian literature, American literature, African literature, Australian literature, Asian literature and the likes.
Some of these works are not originally written in English language. Prior to translation, the writers put them down in their own mother tongue like French, Arabic, Latin, Spanish, Bengali, etc.
To develop students’ cultural competence, so that they become able to participate in a multicultural society, the education should arrange for them to be taught about various cultures, and to gain experience with a wide specter of cultural expressions. The education should encourage cultural understanding, and be instrumental in developing personal insight as well as identity, respect and tolerance. Students should be introduced to art and cultural expressions that express individuality and community, and that stimulate their innovative capabilities. Students should also be given the opportunity to use their capabilities in various activities and expressional forms. These activities can give a foundation for reflection, emotions and spontaneity. (Udir.no 2012)

By the way, have you ever felt relieved while reading a work of Literature, for eg. novel?  Have you ever felt any of your worries & disappointment, doubts & dreams have been suffered by the characters in the novel too?
Have you ever felt you aren’t alone in life?
Well, if you have, do you think reading works of literature, learning literature would strengthen you, arm you, equip you, and get you ready for incoming situations?
Learner Inquirer:
[b] To carry the analytical skills acquired while learning Literature to all other subjects
[e] For us, the students to become independent thinkers and learners.
Master: Brilliant. Indeed, the analytical skills we acquire while immersing ourselves into the plot, by dissecting the characters and learning of their virtues and vices, merits and demerits, in the end allows ourselves to express our own points of view in a discussion on other subject matters too.
Yes, you are bound to become independent thinkers and learners.
English Literature, as we study, aims to provide students with tools to succeed in life, and to be a subject that practices cultural experience. It aims to give students the opportunity to participate in communication about personal, social, literary and interdisciplinary subjects. The subject will also provide insight into how people think and live in the English speaking world.
Communicative skills and cultural insight may encourage increased interactions, understanding and respect between humans with different cultural backgrounds. In this way the language and cultural competence preserve the generic cultivating perspective and strengthen democratic engagement and citizenship. (Udir.no, English Literature and Culture 2012, my translation)

How should we study English Literature?

Learner Pusher: Studying the text, the historical background of the text, or its relationship to the society of the author.
Master: That’s one critical approach termed Historical/Biographical Approach. This approach in literary criticism suits some of the works of Literature like those of Milton, Alexander Pope & John Drydon.
Critical Approaches to Literature offers a survey of the major critical and theoretical movements that have influenced the study of Literature in the last sixty years: Structuralism, Post-structuralism and deconstruction, Postmodernism, Psychoanalytic criticism, Feminist criticism, Marxist criticism, New historicism and cultural materialism, Postcolonial criticism,New Criticism [formalism or Formalist criticism], Biographical Criticism, Historical Criticism  Gender Critics, Psychological Criticism[Psychoanalysis], Sociological Criticism, Mythological
Criticism, Deconstunist Criticism [Deconstruction] and Reader-Response Criticism.
Critical approaches to Literature reveal how or why a particular work is constructed and what its social and cultural implications are.
Understanding critical perspectives will help you to see and appreciate a literary work as a multi-layered construction of meaning. Reading literary criticism will inspire you to reread, rethink, and respond. Soon you will be a full participant in an endless and enriching conversation about Literature.

What’s Reader-response criticism?

Reader-response criticism removes the focus from the text and places it on the reader instead, by attempting to describe what goes on in the reader’s mind during the reading of a text. Reader response critics are interested in the reader’s individual experience with a text. Thus, there is no single definitive reading of a text, because the reader is creating, as opposed to discovering, absolute meanings in texts.
This approach is not a rationale for bizarre meanings or mistaken ones, but an exploration of the plurality of texts. This kind of strategy calls attention to how we read and what influences our readings, and what that reveals about ourselves.
The readers and learners are free to appreciate a work of Literature with any one approach or with a cluster of approaches. It isn’t expected to see a text strictly in a single approach or another, ignoring all other views.

That is antithetical to what we are trying to do. We should always keep our focus on the text and use these critical approaches to clarify our understanding of a text and develop an interpretation of it. Now, look at our specific concern

Cambridge O Level Literature in English [2010]
For examination in June and November 2017, 2018 and 2019

4.1 Cambridge OL Syllabus aims
The syllabus aims to develop the ability of learners to:
• communicate accurately, appropriately and effectively in speech and writing
• understand and respond imaginatively to what they hear, read and experience
• enjoy literature and appreciate its contribution to aesthetic and imaginative growth
• explore areas of universal human concern, which will lead to a better understanding of themselves and others.
4.2 Cambridge OL Assessment objectives
The assessment objectives in Cambridge O Level Literature in English are:
AO1 Show detailed knowledge of the content of literary texts
AO2 Understand the ways literary texts can be interpreted from surface level to deeper awareness of ideas and attitudes and their contexts
AO3 Recognize and appreciate ways in which writers use language
AO4 Recognize and appreciate ways in which writers achieve their effects (e.g.
structure, plot, characterization, dramatic tension, imagery, rhythm, setting and mood)
AO5 Communicate a sensitive and informed personal response to what is read.
MASTER: Now, how should the teachers set the learners up?
Learner Rioter: We are already well set, sir.
[students roaring in laughter]
Master: Then, show me your tender partner.
[students roaring in laughter again]
Learner Inquirer: We would love to debate on the situations and characters of the work of Literature we are studying.
Master: Very nice, but not exactly debate, we do discuss.

One more thing you don’t criticize the guy who bring in an argument you don’t like. Beware you don’t call names. Don’t call the guy who brings in an outlandish point of view, an idiot or bum.
[Class roars in laughter]
But don’t bring in bizarre arguments ok? You may always argue on any specific point of view brought in by any.  But you don’t criticize any person, okey?
Learners: Yes, Sir.
Master: Now, some idea, I am still struggling to formulate: any of your arguments may break down once you go against the commandment “thou shalt not kill”. It is highly unlikely that you could sustain any argument that make broadside attack on this commandment. If we go on killing one another, the concept of humanity will be sunken; civilization will break down. Apocalypse Now. I would love to hear your ideas on this matter sometime later. I’ll be back. On that.
Now, in a debate you take up one point of view and try to win over the other party.
The debaters, most often display an emotional commitment that may cloud rational judgement.  Debates are won through a combination of persuading the opponent; proving one’s argument correct; or proving the opponent’s argument incorrect. 
In a discussion, we welcome all points of views, all opinions from all and discuss together in search of the truth. Such discussions belong to t
he dialectical method. It is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject, who wish to establish the truth of the matter guided by reasoned arguments.

We call this The Dialectical Method:

[a]the art of formal reasoning, especially the procedure of seeking truth through discussion.
[b]The reasoning or logical structure that holds together a continuous argument or exposition.
[c] The interplay of contradictory principals or opposed factors, as understood in the European tradition of philosophy influenced by G. W. Hagel and including Marx & Engles.
Some schematic versions of dialectical philosophy speak of a unification of opposites
in which the thesis is opposed by the antithesis but united with it in a higher synthesis.
Don’t try to grasp [c]. This is an advanced concept second only to Pope believing in Almighty Creator God and then accepting Darwin’s Theory of Evolution too.
Let me add one more point. You are free to relate content from other sources, e.g. other works of literature, movies, real life situations that your hear and the things that you
learn in your life experiences to the text we study. This aspect that we are afforded in Literature, will make you see the work of literature in a better perspective. Furthermore, the expression getting closer to our lives, you will find the work of literature easier to remember.

Literature comes alive when kids have a chance to interpret & to interact. It allows kids to not only see themselves as active readers, but as people who can make meaning” Barry Hoonon

‘Barry Hoonan believes teaching is much like poetry. It is crafted, it is magical, and it is powerful when shared. As an act of creation, teaching illuminates the tiny details of living and learning. Entering Literature discussion groups as a teacher, Mr. Hoonan sees himself as an improvisational artist, listening and responding to student comments and questions. He is on the spot and ready to take the disparate pieces and help students put them together. Moving in and out of group discussions, his ultimate goal is to help students become independent thinkers and learners’. (Annenberg Learner, 2013)
Why Jean Valjean of Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables was imprisoned for 19yrs for stealing a loaf of bread? [a literary work]
Why was that a 12 year schoolgirl was confronted as an adult, remanded, taken to courts of law and given a disproportionate punishment for stealing eight coconuts? [real life situation]
Why did Julian Paul Assange publish U.S. military and diplomatic documents in WikiLeaks? [real life situation][*8]
Why did Edward Snowden leak top-secret USA & UK government mass surveillance programs to the press? [real life situation] [*9]
He said the world was an inferno full of
darkness and evil, and that there were only two ways of dealing with it. The
first was easy and wrong: to accept it and become part of it. The second way
was harder and right: you fight it, and recognize those who aren’t evil, and
help them endure. 
[*1] Herein we focus upon Interpretive Literature that attracts mostly discriminating readers bent on examining the life, rather than Escape  literature, invariably with a happy ending, enjoyed by immature or inexperienced readers in search of escape from the bitter reality of the world to a pleasant or exciting image of world.

Escape literature
The primary intention of Escape literature is to entertain the readers. But, of course, they too might have a theme. But then again the outcome is predictable: for eg. Two lovers get together and readers would feel satisfied; the antagonist losses the struggle and readers would have no reason to be sorrowful. Escape Literature features a thrilling, exciting, past paced plot and a hero to identify.
Escape Literature and Interpretive Literature are ends of a continuum: many books fall at different places in-between these cornerstones.
[*2] Western literature, also known as European literature, is the Literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically
related languages such as 
Basque [language of an  indigenous ethnic group living in north-central Spain and south-western France] and Hungarian. Western Literature is considered one of the defining elements of Western civilization. The best of Western literature [three genres of literature: Prose, Drama and Poetry] is considered to be the Western Canon.
[*3] Joseph Conrad is a unique figure in English Literature, not only because of his genius as a writer of novels, short stories, and essays but also because of the variety of his experience, Joseph Conrad (original name Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski) born in Berdyczow, Poland, on December 3, 1857, died in 1924, came from the nobility of Russian-dominated Poland. During his lifetime Conrad was admired for the richness of his prose and his renderings of dangerous life at sea and in exotic places.
But his initial reputation as a masterful teller of colourful adventures of the sea masked his fascination with the individual when faced with nature’s invariable unconcern, man’s frequent malevolence, and his inner battles with good and evil. To Conrad, the sea meant above all the tragedy of loneliness. A writer of complex skill and striking insight, but above all of an intensely personal vision, he has been increasingly regarded as one of the greatest English novelist.
[*4] Human condition
[a] defined as “the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality.”
[b] As a literary term, “the human condition” is typically used in the context of ambiguous subjects such as the meaning of life or moral concerns.
[c] is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives, including those of religion, philosophy, history, art, literature, sociology, biology, and psychology.
[d] is a phrase typically used with respect of the generality of the situations that humans face in getting along with each other and the world.
[*5]  Scandinavians speak English extremely well. The main reasons identified are:
[a] the quality of education: Scandinavian education system gives higher importance to the integration of theory and practice; class size: 12- 15 learners
Similarity of Languages: Danish, Swedish and Norwegian are all Germanic languages, which is also the case for English.
English is difficult for East Asians to learn. Chinese languages (Mandarin, Wu, Cantonese…) and English are totally different.
So even though English does not act as a lingua franca in Sri Lanka, it would still be easier for us to learn because Sinhala, our language
belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. Indo-European languages just like English.
[c] Consumption of English media. Scandinavians watch a lot of movies and TV series from America in English, whereas other Europeans dub almost everything from America into their own language. 
[*6] Eloquence  is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking. It is primarily the power of expressing strong emotions in striking and appropriate language, thereby producing conviction or persuasion. The term is also used for writing in a fluent style.
[*7] Erudition is the depth, polish and breadth that education confers

[*8] & [*9]  Most possibly both of them have been educated in civil rights during their school days to such an extent, they may lost the ability to weigh the value of civil rights of citizens against their collective civic responsibilities of citizens towards their motherland.

[*10] Parsi, also spelled Parsee, member of a group of followers in India of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster. The Parsis, whose name means “Persians”, are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims. They live chiefly in Bombay and in a few towns and villages mostly to the north of Bombay, but also a few minorities near by in Karachi (Pakistan) and Bangalore (Karnataka, India). There is a sizeable Parsee population in Pune as well in Hyderbad.

Cambridge OL English Literature bunpeiris

Cambridge OL English Literature bunpeiris

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